Canola Market – What To Do?

- Canola Field

Upcoming market considerations for canola producers following China’s import restrictions imposed in March.

“Canola producers are well aware of those import restrictions,” says Neil Blue, provincial crop market analyst with Alberta Agriculture and Forestry.

According to the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), to mid-July of the 2018-19 crop year, canola deliveries to the licensed Canadian handling system totaled 17.6 million tonnes, down about 780,000 tonnes from mid-July 2018. CGC recorded canola exports totaled 8.9 million tonnes near crop year-end, down one million tonnes from last July.

He says that export destination data are less current. “China, after a stronger start to importing Canadian canola in crop year 2018-19, had imported 560,000 tonnes less canola seed from Canada to the end of May than in the same 10-month period last crop year. Lower exports of Canadian canola seed to Mexico, Japan and the United States were also recorded.”

“A bright spot is domestic usage,” he adds. “CGC reports to July 14 that domestic use totaled 9.1 million tonnes compared to 8.9 million tonnes to mid-July 2018. A large amount of high green seed count canola was harvested last year. Much of that seed sold for feed or to small biodiesel plants, and most of that not recorded in CGC statistics.”

As for the canola inventory situation, Blue says that there is little doubt that canola seed carryover as of August 1, 2019 is record high.

“The 2019 Canadian canola acreage is lower at just under 21 million acres, according to the June Statistics Canada survey. Assuming average yields, lower exports and similar crush usage for crop year 2019-20, Canadian canola carryover is forecast similar to the 3.5 to 4 million tonnes estimated for July 31, 2019.”

He adds that although canola carryover will be record-high, crop storage will not likely be an issue for most farmers this fall.

“That is due to exports of wheat, durum, barley and lentils being significantly higher during 2018-19, more than offsetting the lower canola exports and lower overall domestic usage.”

With canola prices, Blue notes that the price of canola eroded in December 2018, following lower forecasted soy complex prices and continued increases to world inventories of soybeans and vegetable oil.

“In addition, the loss of hogs from African swine fever is reducing feed demand in Asia. However, some farmers did forward price new crop canola early on at higher prices via deferred delivery contracts or by using futures or options.”

“During June and July, there were bids of more than $10 per bushel for No. 1 canola – not as high as wished but still historically good. Off-grade No. 3 and sample canola is marketable, although discounted to a range of $5 to $9 per bushel, quality dependant. Canola basis levels have varied widely, with some buyers bidding 50 cents a bushel more than nearby competition. Some line elevator companies have offered basis ‘specials,’ resulting in prices near $10 per bushel.”

He adds that a rebound to higher canola prices is not in the near term forecast without resolution of the trade issue with China.

“However, the marketing message remains – know the grade of your product and shop widely for the best pricing opportunities.”

Source: Alberta Agriculture and Forestry

Space – The Newest Frontier in Agriculture

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When the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launched its first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite, RADARSAT-1, in 1995, they weren’t thinking about agriculture. But scientists at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) saw data streams from earth-orbiting satellites as an opportunity to look at agriculture from a stellar new vantage point. Soon, they were using satellite data steams to run crop models and evaluate the ability of fields to drain.

Fast forward to June 2019 when the CSA launched it’s third generation of SAR satellites, the RADARSAT-Constellation, and agriculture is now one of the primary clients and end-users.

Using Satellite Technology for Agriculture

The RADARSAT-Constellation is a series of three SAR satellites. When linked together, they orbit the earth, providing more frequent coverage and more advanced imaging of our agricultural resources.

Dr. Andrew Davidson, manager of Earth Observation Operations at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), explains that there is no better way to obtain national-scale information on the state and trends of agriculture and resource use than from space.

“Satellites can cover way more ground at a much faster pace than humans, drones or aircraft, and the data can be used to measure things such as crop type, vegetation cover and productivity and surface soil moisture conditions,” he says.

These data are correlated with data from aircrafts, drones, and ground collection networks to produce highly accurate measurements of crops and conditions, with the ability to detect changes quickly.

Davidson underlines that satellites provide the kind of timely, reliable and scientifically validated information that is necessary to help scientists, farmers, producer groups as well as policy-makers make good evidence-based decisions to manage their operations while protecting our natural resources.

AAFC’s Earth Observation Operations is based at the Ottawa Research and Development Centre. They are small, but mighty and the amount of data they manage is impressive.

“Satellites provide imagery; but it is the scientists on the ground who turn it into something useful,” says Davidson.

With other AAFC research scientists, they also manage international collaborations and together, AAFC is acknowledged as global experts in optical as well as SAR satellite technology.

What’s in it for Canadian agriculture?

Much of what Dr. Davidson’s team produces are data sets, maps and forecasting tools that can be accessed online through various AAFC web portals. There are also tools and applications for analysing these data so that decision makers can make informed agricultural management decisions.

The Annual Space-Based Crop Inventory, a product of AAFC research, annually maps the crop type of every field in Canada and is used to detect trends in crop planting practices. It is also critical for other applications, such as warning growers of possible threats such as crop diseases. The inventory is also being used by provinces, private sector and academia to determine how crop agriculture is affecting the surrounding environment including lake water quality and honeybee populations.

“These data have opened up the possibility of enhanced decision making in the agriculture sector,” Davidson says. “And it doesn’t stop there; our ability to help meet the informational needs of the sector is only expected to improve as new satellite sensor technologies are launched, brought online, and made available.”

All in all, earth observation research is helping the Canadian agricultural sector thrive and the launch of Canada’s new RADARSAT-Constellation satellites will continue to benefit future generations of Canadians by protecting food production systems and the environment.

More information on the RADARSAT-Constellation Mission can be found on the Canadian Space Agency “What is the RADARSAT Constellation Mission” webpage.

Key Discoveries/Benefits

  • The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launched its latest Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite, RADARSAT-Constellation, in June 2019.
  • Data from earth-orbiting satellites produce highly accurate measurements of crops and conditions, with the ability to detect changes more quickly.
  • Satellites provide timely, reliable, and scientifically validated information that helps make good, evidence-based decisions to manage farming operations and protect natural resources.

Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Pricing A Salvage Crop

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Recent hailstorms in the province have left some producers with severely damaged crops, but they could still have value as a feed source.

“These damaged crops may be a loss as far as going into the bin is concerned but likely have good value as a feed source especially in year like this with the potential of higher than normal feed prices,” explains Ted Nibourg, farm business management specialist at the Alberta Ag-Info Centre. “The typical methods of harvesting a salvage crop are as greenfeed or silage.”

Nibourg says that pricing a standing crop – what some call it after a hailstorm – can be difficult. Three factors are involved in valuing that crop including price, production, and costs.

“Price in the pit or the bale is the most difficult of the three to determine. Forage prices do not settle until late fall. Production is determined after the crop is put up, and the costs can also be calculated at that time using typical custom rates.”

One method of arriving at price at this time of year is to use the guide of 12 times price of barley for silage. Says Nibourg, “Currently, the average barley price in the province is running $268 per ton or around $5.83 per bushel. This puts 35% dry matter silage in the pit at $70 per wet ton. Converting that to a greenfeed equivalent at 85% dry matter, gives us a greenfeed price in the bale of about 8.5 cents per pound.”

“With those numbers in mind, we can calculate the value of the standing salvage crop,” he explains. “If the salvage crop produced 4 wet tons of silage per acre, the cost of putting that in the pit would be around $17.60 per wet ton. That would leave a value of $52.40 per wet ton for the standing crop. If the yield jumps to 5 wet tons per acre, the costs for putting it up is reduced to $16.55 per wet ton, using average custom rates. That level of production leaves $53.45 per wet ton for the standing crop.”

He adds that from a greenfeed perspective, the process is similar. “If the greenfeed yields 1.5 tons per acre or 2.5 bales per acre weighing 1,200 pounds, the cost for putting up the greenfeed runs approximately $32 per bale. A 1,200 lb. bale at 8.5 cents per pound would be worth $102 per bale. Subtracting the $32 leaves a value of $70 per bale for the standing crop. Likewise, if the crop yields 1.8 tons per acre or 3 bales, the costs involved drop to $29 per bale, leaving $73 per bale for the salvage crop.”

“Keep in mind that the prices used here are for illustrative purposes only and may not materialize as the crop season progresses,” he adds. “Forage prices in this province do not settle until late fall. At that time, most producers have a good idea of overall forage production. By late October, one can reasonably estimate the type of winter to expect which has a bearing on feed disappearance. The fall calf market will give a good indication whether calves will be back grounded or sent directly to feedlots, and also what the cull rate on cows will be.”

Source: Alberta Ag

How To Determine A Level Of Spendable Income

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One of the least understood and measured cost in a farm operation’s cash flow is the amount the owners withdraw from net farm income for family living. “Many people remember a time when farm operations penciled in $30,000 to $40,000 annually,” says Dyck. “Today, farm families enjoy the same standard of living as their urban counterparts. Higher withdrawals for family living use ‘after tax’ dollars can impact the farm operation’s ability to grow, pay down debt and invest outside the farm.”

Statistics Canada data from 2017 shows the total expenditures for an average Alberta household of $100,587 with total current consumption of $72,957 before income taxes.

“Statistics Canada does not break down urban versus rural expenditures,” he explains. “Generally, household expenses in rural Alberta are approximately 80% of the Alberta household data. It works out to $58,365 per year, which may seem high for the average farm family. However, some expenditures such as shelter, household operation, and transportation blur between farm expenses and personal expenses.”

“Since family living expenses are paid with ‘after tax’ dollars,” he says, “It is necessary to calculate the amount of additional taxable income the farm must generate to pay for living. Using a combined federal and provincial tax rate of 25%, an average farm must generate approximately $73,000 over and above income used to pay for farm expenses per year.”

Can an average farm in Alberta generate enough income to pay for these expenditures? Says Dyck, “In 2017, the average Alberta net farm income was about $54,000. The deficit of approximately $19,000 shows a high reliance of farm families on off-farm income to provide a higher standard of living, to manage volatility in farm income, and to provide funds for investment back into the farm. In fact, a 2017 study found that off-farm jobs in Alberta contributed to 79% of household incomes.”

Dyck adds that in a practical world, family living expenses vary widely from the so-called average. “A strategy for success is to use these numbers as a benchmark and develop a cash flow for personal and family expenses. There are many templates on the internet to help with the process.”

“One tip is to add 25% to your family budget for unexpected expenditures. Also, give some thought to adding an expense line for off-farm investments for retirement. Farmers tend to view their equity in the farm operation as their source of retirement income. With people living longer, diversification to non-farm investments will provide flexibility with future income flows and flexibility in succession planning of the farm business.”

“It is important to know your personal needs and how you will generate enough income to fill those needs,” he adds. “This knowledge will also manage your wants. Often, those wants get farm families into trouble. A family farm creates self-employment, so managing the income to meet the needs of the farm and the needs of the family is hard to separate. It is always important to consider and a challenge to manage.”

For more information, see Statistics Canada’s Survey of Household Spending

Source: Alberta Ag

Pride Corn, Soybeans Available Only Through Canterra Retailer Network

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Farmers in Western Canada will now have access to the Pride Seeds portfolio of hybrid corn, soybean seeds and agronomic resources only through the Canterra Seeds retailer network in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.

As research brings earlier-maturing seed corn hybrids and soybean varieties onto the market, Western Canadian farmers have huge opportunities for acreage growth in these crops to boost their profitability and expand crop rotations. To effectively take advantage of these opportunities, Canterra Seeds and Pride Seeds both recognize how crucial it is for farmers to have access to seed with a demonstrated record of success growing under Prairie conditions, the companies said in a statement.

“The continued growth of corn and soybeans in Western Canada, and the demand from our customers for the best genetics and performance to fuel that growth, is the reason Canterra Seeds originally partnered with Pride Seeds three years ago,” says Canterra CEO Dave Hansen. “I believe this new relationship shows that we have proven ourselves to each other, and our customers.”

Canada’s Ag Sector Loses $2.9 Billion Due to Labour Shortages

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With the strong demand for Canadian food products around the world, agriculture is poised for growth. However, workforce challenges affect the sector’s ability to meet production goals, as well as their contribution to the national economy.

The Labour Market Forecast to 2029 for the agricultural sector was released June 25 by the Canadian Agricultural Human Resource Council (CAHRC). The data indicated that farmers across Canada’s agriculture sector reported $2.9 billion in lost sales because of unfilled vacancies – an increase from $1.5 billion in 2014. Forty-six per cent of farmers who reported vacancies delayed or cancelled expansion plans and many reported extreme stress for themselves and their workers. Nearly 90% of producers with unfilled jobs identified excessive stress and hours as a result of not being able to find the workers they required.

However, there are signs of improvement over the last four years. Most noteworthy is that total job vacancies in agriculture have declined to 16,500 from 26,400, largely as a result of the adoption of technology, and an increase in the number of international workers who fill jobs where no Canadians can be found. Yet, vacancy rates in agriculture are among the highest of any sector in Canada at 5.4% (compared to the national average of just under 2.9%), they have decreased from the 2014 rate of 7%.

“Labour shortages in Canadian agriculture can only be addressed by taking decisive action,” states Portia MacDonald-Dewhirst, Executive Director of CAHRC. “By working together, we can find meaningful, creative solutions to increase the supply of labour and improve the skills of the sector’s workforce for the continued success and growth of agriculture across Canada.”

To address the labour issues identified in the research, CAHRC has developed agriculture-specific human resource (HR) tools designed to support modern farm operations to manage their workforce. CAHRC also offers Agri Skills, online and in-person training programs, and the Agri HR Toolkit – an online resource guide and templates to address the HR needs of any business. For agricultural organizations there are customized labour issues briefings that apply the new research to specific commodities and provinces, to explore the labour implications within their specific area. For more information on these and other CAHRC offerings visit www.cahrc-ccrha.ca.

The research provides clarity for agricultural employees, employers, educators and policymakers about the state of the labour market and ways to minimize shortages. A series of 22 reports with labour market forecasts for each province and major agricultural commodity will be released in the coming weeks. The agricultural labour market research was validated through industry consultations conducted Canada-wide involving 1,900 farm business owners, employees and stakeholder organizations.

The labour market forecast research was funded in part by the Government of Canada’s Sectoral Initiatives Program.

Source: The Canadian Agricultural Human Resource Council

Be Part of the Pea Leaf Weevil Survey

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Insect specialists at Alberta Agriculture and Forestry are seeking planted pea fields to survey north of Highway 1 and the Peace Region.

The team has begun its 2019 pea leaf weevil survey from the southern border of the province into the Peace Region and needs pea fields to survey. Team members do not enter the pea field to conduct the count. Instead, they kneel on the field edge and count the number of feeding notches on each node of 50 plants.

Contact [email protected] to have your pea field included in the survey.

Flea beetles are now very active, and read more about them – Make the Right Flea Beetle Spray Decision.

Diamondback moth survey

The diamondback moth survey continues with 33 trap locations reporting in the province. For current information, go to the diamondback moth survey results map.

Cutworms

Now that many producers in the province are done or nearly done seeding, scouting for cutworms may be on the agenda. Report cutworms here, and find more information on the cutworm map.

For timely and accurate insect management information and resources, go to the Alberta Insect Pest Monitoring Network webpage.

Source: Alberta Agriculture

Entering the Fruit Industry in Alberta

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A number of Albertans contemplate growing fruit for a living every year. A look at what to consider with this potential endeavour.

“It is an exciting prospect, to be sure,” says Robert Spencer, commercial horticulture specialist with Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AF). “Fruit is something that is generally loved by most people. It is healthy, and there are lots of good options to consider.”

Everyone who considers entering the fruit industry in Alberta comes with their own unique experience, knowledge, and approach. Some may already own land and have grown a crop. Others may know nothing about agricultural production.

“Regardless of your experience level, there are resources to help you get started,” adds Spencer. “First, by answering the plethora of questions that need to be answered to make an informed decision, to formulate a concrete business plan, and then to support you as you go along.”

Learn all that you can about the land that you will be using. Explains Spencer, “Get a soil test, look at the topography, and see if there are any wind breaks or shelter belts to offer some protection from the elements. Consider what you want to grow and why. You will have more questions but you will find the answers as you work out a business plan.”

“It is critical you take the time to prepare both yourself, your business plan, and the land,” adds Spencer. “Fruit production is intensive, involved, and generally a long term investment.”

“Find some excellent, inexpensive, comprehensive production manuals to you can use to get a sense of what is involved in fruit production in Alberta on the AF publications page and on the AF horticulture page,” says Spencer. “There are also some good economic overview studies for bush fruit that might help you consider the costs before you incur them.”

Source: Alberta Agriculture

Labour Productivity and Alberta’s Primary Agriculture Industry

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The province’s labour productivity in primary agriculture – crop and animal production – has increased significantly over the last decade.

“Labour productivity measures how efficiently an economy transforms inputs into outputs,” explains Jean Marie Uwizeyimana, agri-food statistician with Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AF). “An economy is considered to be more productive when it produces the same amount or more outputs with fewer hours. It is measured as gross domestic product (GDP) per hour worked.”

Between 2009 and 2018, the province’s labour productivity in primary agriculture increased from $32.1 per hour worked to $53.8 per hour worked. Alberta’s primary agriculture had the third highest labour productivity in Canada, behind Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

Uwizeyimana says that the crop production sub-sector is the key driver of primary agriculture labour productivity. “For example, Alberta’s labour productivity in crop production reached $127.7 per hour in 2018 and has more than doubled over the last decade. “The province’s crop production had the second highest labour productivity in Canada in 2018, behind Saskatchewan with labour productivity of $137.8 per hour. Manitoba’s crop production ranked third in labour productivity at $109.6 per hour.”

He adds that Alberta’s crop production GDP increased by almost 40% during that same time. “As well, the total number of hours used in crop production declined by more than 42%. Therefore, crop production in the province has been more efficient and effective over the past 10 years.”

The labour productivity between crop production and animal production is quite different, he explains. “While labour productivity in crop production in Alberta was $127.7 per hour in 2018, it was only $7.9 per hour in animal production. This difference is not unique to Alberta, as similar patterns are observed across all Canadian provinces. To understand the difference, one needs to look at the definition of labour productivity.”

“Labour productivity is calculated by dividing GDP by the total number of hours used. For example, Alberta’s crop production used 34.6 million hours to generate $4.5 billion in GDP in 2018. Animal production used 65% more hours, or 57.1 million hours, to generate only a GDP of $453.3 million. We can conclude that the animal production sub-sector is more labour intensive than the crop production subsector. This seems to be the trend across all provinces.”

He says there are many factors that contribute to labour productivity growth. “Those include adding more machines and equipment for workers to use, more skilled workers, increasing plant size, changing organizational structure, and adoption of new technologies.”

Source: Alberta Agriculture

Herbicide Resistance

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Weed resistance to herbicides continues to be an issue, as an increasing numbers of weeds are no longer responding to herbicides.

“Most producers are aware of the issue but, unless it affects them directly, they don’t see it as a huge issue,” says Harry Brook, crop specialist at the Alberta Ag-Info Centre.

“For example, resistance to glyphosate – commonly known as RoundUp – is found in other parts of the world and Canada. We also now have glyphosate resistance in kochia in southern Alberta and it continues to spread. In 2017, glyphosate resistant Russian thistle was found in Montana. These should serve as wake-up calls to producers for the importance of rotating different herbicide groups when treating problem weeds. Failure to take this problem seriously will eventually result in the loss of our most popular weed control products.”

Herbicide resistant wild oats are found in many fields in the province. Some biotypes are resistant to more than one herbicide group.

“In Alberta in 2017, 58% of fields sampled had some Group 1 resistant wild oats. The majority of herbicides used for wild oat control are in this group. If wild oats is resistant to a single herbicide in a chemical group, it is pretty well resistant to all the herbicides that use that particular mode of action.”

“Also in 2017, Group 2 resistant wild oats was found in 40% of Alberta fields and 29% had wild oats resistant to both Group 1 and 2. Soil-applied wild oat control is in Group 8, which is older chemistry and has seen a resurgence in use. Cases of resistance to Group 8 herbicides is increasing, despite it not being used much in the last 20 years.”

Brook says that cleavers, kochia, chickweed, spiny annual sow thistle, hemp nettle, green foxtail, wild mustard, smartweed, Russian thistle and stinkweed have all developed resistances to Group 2 herbicides. “That group contain the sulfonylureas, the ‘imis’ and florasulam. Weed surveys from 2014 to 2017 estimate about 7.7 million acres or more in Alberta have some weed resistance issue.”

He says there are a few ways to detect a herbicide resistance issue. “Investigate areas in the field where weed control didn’t occur. Rule out other factors that might have affected herbicide performance including misapplication, spray misses, unfavourable weather conditions, and misapplication of herbicide at wrong leaf stage or late weed flushes.”

“Other warning signs include other weeds listed on the herbicide being controlled adequately, patchy control with no reasonable explanation, a history of herbicide failure in the same area, lack of signs of herbicide injury on plants, and finally, a history of using the same herbicide group on the land, year after year.”

Brooks says that when a producer uses the same herbicide or products using the same mode of action, they are actually helping select for those plants that are either not affected, or affected less, by the active ingredient than other plants.

“By killing off susceptible plants, you are actually setting the stage for the resistant ones to thrive as all their competition is killed off.”

Herbicides that have one specific mode of action are most likely to develop resistant weeds. “Group 1 and Group 2 herbicides fall into this category,” he says. “However, the most important reason for having resistance show up is due to repeated use of the same chemical. Short crop rotations and a lack of crop variety have set up the conditions to encourage weed resistance to emerge.”

Canada has reported resistance issues in weeds to at least six different herbicide groups. “If we ignore the risk of developing resistances, the day may come when we might lose some of our best herbicide tools from the weed management tool box. Pay attention. Scout your fields. Keep field records. Use a good crop and herbicide group rotation to keep this problem at bay. The consequences of not doing so are not cheap or pretty.”

“Most producers are aware of the issue but, unless it affects them directly, they don’t see it as a huge issue,” says Harry Brook, crop specialist at the Alberta Ag-Info Centre.

“For example, resistance to glyphosate – commonly known as RoundUp – is found in other parts of the world and Canada. We also now have glyphosate resistance in kochia in southern Alberta and it continues to spread. In 2017, glyphosate resistant Russian thistle was found in Montana. These should serve as wake-up calls to producers for the importance of rotating different herbicide groups when treating problem weeds. Failure to take this problem seriously will eventually result in the loss of our most popular weed control products.”

Herbicide resistant wild oats are found in many fields in the province. Some biotypes are resistant to more than one herbicide group.

“In Alberta in 2017, 58% of fields sampled had some Group 1 resistant wild oats. The majority of herbicides used for wild oat control are in this group. If wild oats is resistant to a single herbicide in a chemical group, it is pretty well resistant to all the herbicides that use that particular mode of action.”

“Also in 2017, Group 2 resistant wild oats was found in 40% of Alberta fields and 29% had wild oats resistant to both Group 1 and 2. Soil-applied wild oat control is in Group 8, which is older chemistry and has seen a resurgence in use. Cases of resistance to Group 8 herbicides is increasing, despite it not being used much in the last 20 years.”

Brook says that cleavers, kochia, chickweed, spiny annual sow thistle, hemp nettle, green foxtail, wild mustard, smartweed, Russian thistle and stinkweed have all developed resistances to Group 2 herbicides. “That group contain the sulfonylureas, the ‘imis’ and florasulam. Weed surveys from 2014 to 2017 estimate about 7.7 million acres or more in Alberta have some weed resistance issue.”

He says there are a few ways to detect a herbicide resistance issue. “Investigate areas in the field where weed control didn’t occur. Rule out other factors that might have affected herbicide performance including misapplication, spray misses, unfavourable weather conditions, and misapplication of herbicide at wrong leaf stage or late weed flushes.”

“Other warning signs include other weeds listed on the herbicide being controlled adequately, patchy control with no reasonable explanation, a history of herbicide failure in the same area, lack of signs of herbicide injury on plants, and finally, a history of using the same herbicide group on the land, year after year.”

Brooks says that when a producer uses the same herbicide or products using the same mode of action, they are actually helping select for those plants that are either not affected, or affected less, by the active ingredient than other plants.

“By killing off susceptible plants, you are actually setting the stage for the resistant ones to thrive as all their competition is killed off.”

Herbicides that have one specific mode of action are most likely to develop resistant weeds. “Group 1 and Group 2 herbicides fall into this category,” he says. “However, the most important reason for having resistance show up is due to repeated use of the same chemical. Short crop rotations and a lack of crop variety have set up the conditions to encourage weed resistance to emerge.”

Canada has reported resistance issues in weeds to at least six different herbicide groups. “If we ignore the risk of developing resistances, the day may come when we might lose some of our best herbicide tools from the weed management tool box. Pay attention. Scout your fields. Keep field records. Use a good crop and herbicide group rotation to keep this problem at bay. The consequences of not doing so are not cheap or pretty.”

Source: Alberta Agriculture