Alberta Canola Producers 2019 Board of Directors

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BACK ROW: Ian Chitwood, Roger Chevraux, Kevin Serfas, Wayne Schneider, Cale Staden, Dan Doll FRONT ROW: Denis Guindon, Andre Harpe, John Guelly, John Mayko, Mike Ammeter

The 29th Annual General Meeting of the Alberta Canola Producers Commission was held January 29 at the FarmTech Conference in Edmonton. Following the Annual General Meeting, the Board elected John Guelly from Westlock as the new Chair, and Kevin Serfas of Turin as the new Vice-Chair.

Alberta Canola is pleased to welcome two new directors to the Board:

  • Wayne Schneider of Nisku, replacing Renn Breitkreuz in region 6
  • Roger Chevraux of Killam, replacing Dale Uglem in region 11

No nominations were received for region 12, where Brian Hildebrand retired from the Board. Growers that are interested in representing region 12 should visit albertacanola.com/elections

The Board of Alberta Canola would like to thank outgoing directors Renn Breitkreuz, Dale Uglem, and Brian Hildebrand for all the hard work they have done on behalf of Alberta’s canola farmers.

Renn joined the Board in 2014 and served on a variety of Board committees, and represented Alberta Canola on the Canadian Canola Growers Association (CCGA) Board as well as Vice Chair and Chair of the Board.

Dale joined the Board in 2016 and served on the Grower Relations & Extension and Research committees, represented Alberta Canola on the Board of the CCGA and served as Chair of the FarmTech Planning committee.

Brian joined the Board in 2017 and served on the Research and Government & Industry Affairs committees.

Visit albertacanola.com/about for more information on the Board of Directors, the committees that guide the board, and Alberta Canola’s regions.

The mission of Alberta Canola is to support the long term success of canola farmers in Alberta through research, extension, consumer engagement, and advocacy for canola farmers.

Source: Alberta Canola

Tax Credit Rate For Alberta Canola Producers In 2018 Is 17.43 Per Cent

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Canola growers in Alberta that do not request a refund of their check off from the Alberta Canola Producers Commission qualify for a tax credit for the 2018 tax year.

The Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED) tax credit allows canola growers to claim the tax credit for that portion of the check off paid that was used to fund qualifying research.

“The tax credit is an additional benefit for growers who pay check-off on crops like canola”, says John Guelly a farmer from Westlock, Alberta and the Chair of Alberta Canola’s research committee. “Farmers are funding research into finding solutions to agronomic issues like clubroot, while being able to capture some of that investment back at tax time.”

The tax credit rate for Alberta canola producers in 2018 is 17.43 percent. For example, if an individual grower paid $100.00 in check off to Alberta Canola in 2018, $17.43 is the eligible amount to be earned as the tax credit.

The tax credit can:

offset federal taxes owing in the current year,

  • be received as a tax refund,
  • be carried forward up to 10 years to offset federal taxes owing, or
  • be carried back 3 years to reduce federal taxes paid in those years.
  • Individual producers must file a T2038 (IND). Farm corporations must file form T2SCH31.

For more information, contact the Canada Revenue Agency or your accountant.

More information on the SR&ED tax credit can be found on the Canada Revenue Agency Website at www.cra-arc.gc.ca/txcrdt/sred-rsde

Source: Alberta Canola

China Grants Regulatory Approval of TruFlex Canola with Roundup Ready Technology

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Canadian and U.S. canola farmers will have access to Bayer’s next-generation canola trait following confirmation that China’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) has granted safety certificate approval for the import and food/feed use of TruFlex canola with Roundup Ready technology (MON88302). MARA has notified Bayer that a safety certificate for TruFlex canola has been granted. MARA has publicly posted this information on their website and we are awaiting final documentation, which we expect to receive shortly.

“After five years of waiting to introduce this product to Canadian and U.S. farmers we are thrilled to move forward with commercialization in 2019,” says Jon Riley, trait launch lead with Bayer. “Farmers want, and need, new technology to help drive yield on their farms and they are looking forward to planting TruFlex canola this coming season.”

The company is encouraged that fundamental improvements in the regulatory process in China remain an important focus in ongoing negotiations with governments that have significant exports to China. Bayer supports the goal of these negotiations; enabling a predictable, timely, transparent and science-based process in China that fuels both global innovation and trade.

TruFlex canola is part of an improved canola system compared to Genuity Roundup Ready canola and is designed for a range of growing conditions. Among the benefits over Bayer’s current technology are:

  • Improved control of tough weeds – The TruFlex canola system allows for the control of a broad spectrum of tough-to-control weeds including cleavers, foxtail barley and wild buckwheat. It also helps enable season-long dandelion control.
  • Flexibility in spray rates and timing – The TruFlex canola system has a wider application window, providing farmers with up to 10-14 more spray days than our current technology. And by enabling flexible application rates, it will help farmers choose the right rate for the unique weed challenges they face on their farms.
  • Higher yield potential through genetics and improved crop safety – New genetics help deliver higher yield potential and the improved crop system delivers better weed control and crop safety over Genuity Roundup Ready canola.

Stewarded plot trials and field demonstrations took place at several locations across Western Canada last summer to allow farmers to see the performance of TruFlex canola in the field and drive pre-orders from farmers across Western Canada.

Bayer expects TruFlex canola will be planted on approximately one million acres in its inaugural season and will be offered in both the company’s DEKALB seed brand and from other Canadian licensees, including Nutrien Ag Solutions and CANTERRA SEEDS.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada granted full food, feed and environmental safety approval of TruFlex canola in June 2012 and the product has been approved for import in several export markets.  Securing import approval from China — Canada’s largest export market for canola —  further enables our 2019 commercialization plans.

Green Seed Canola – What To Consider When Marketing

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Harvested canola samples in 2018 contained variable levels of green seed. Neil Blue, provincial crop market analyst with Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, looks at what producers should consider when marketing their crop.

The starting point for producers to deal with green seeds is to know what they have. Explains Blue, “What is the grade, dockage, moisture of representative samples, using different graders and perhaps including the Canadian Grain Commission.”

He notes that canola producers should be aware of the grading rules. According to the Official Grain Grading Guide from the Canadian Grain Commission, No. 1 canola may have up to two per cent distinctly green seeds and a maximum of five per cent damaged seeds including the distinctly greens. No. 2 canola may have up to six per cent distinctly green seeds and maximum 12 per cent damaged seeds including the distinctly greens. The No. 3 canola limit is 20 per cent distinctly green and 25 per cent total damaged seeds. Canola with higher levels than that will grade sample.

Blue says to clarify the term ‘distinctly green,’ the Canola Watch article Grading for Green points out that, “two limes don’t make a green.”

Blue says that particularly in the northern half of Alberta, harvested canola samples showed widespread but highly variable levels of distinctly green seeds.

“Some farmers have reported that there has been a reduction in the green seed count during storage and others have said that it has not changed since harvest,” he says. “The next step after knowing your product is to shop around as some buyers are accepting higher levels of green seed than others, and at different discounts. Also, some buyers may be able to do paper blending – mixing as a paper calculation the higher green count and lower green count canola to achieve a better overall grade and price.”

Producers need to be aware of the risks when storing green seed canola, as Blue says there have already been a number of cases of canola spoiling in the bin even if technically dry.

“Some of those spoilage cases have been attributed to the high green seed count. Spoilage can occur quickly and lower the value to sample canola, so producers need to regularly monitor the temperature and condition of stored canola. Many farmers also move it around to reduce the spoilage risk.”

If some canola spoilage has occurred, Blue says to first be sure to stop the spoilage. “Then, know what you have and shop around for the best market. Line elevator companies and crushers may not want low grade or out of condition canola. However, some targeted sales of high green count canola have been arranged by grain companies and some off-grade buyers specialize in such products. Also, many cash grain brokers have done a good job of finding a place for that canola to go.”

For more information or to request a list of crop buyers, contact Neil Blue at 780-422-4053 or [email protected]

Source: Alberta Agriculture and Forestry

CPT 2018 Results Now Available

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The 2018 Canola Performance Trials (CPT) small plot and field scale data booklet is now available on the CPT website to download and view!

The booklet displays yield, height, lodging, days to maturity and calculated gross revenue values for 29 varieties (from all three HT systems) grown in short, mid and long season zone locations all across western Canada. It features results from 18 standard and nine straight cut small plot trials, as well as 42 field scale trials across the Prairies (including 13 standard, 20 straight cut and nine clubroot‑resistant variety field scale trials).

The three Prairie canola grower groups – Alberta Canola Producers Commission (Alberta Canola), the Saskatchewan Canola Development Commission (SaskCanola) and the Manitoba Canola Growers Association – funded the 2018 program. As a means of participation, the B.C. Grain Producers Association conducted trials in the Peace region. The provincial oilseed specialists and industry scientists provided expertise. The Canola Council of Canada delivered the program working closely with the CPT Governance and Technical Committees and the contracted coordinator (Haplotech). Seed was provided by the distributing companies.

The 2018 CPT dataset has not been added to the online database yet, but we are working to get it incorporated as soon as we can. We will send out another Canola Watch update once this database is updated.

Source: Canola Watch

Southern Alberta Clubroot Response Workshop

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Clubroot was confirmed in 4 fields southeast of Calgary in the fall of 2018.

This meeting will help you gain a better understanding of the clubroot pathogen in the context of southern Alberta and teach you how to limit the impact of clubroot on your community.

There will be plenty of time for discussion, and representatives from southern Alberta municipalities and seed companies will be available for questions throughout the day.

SPEAKERS & TOPICS

Local Clubroot Situation Update
Autumn Barnes – Agronomy Specialist, Canola Council of Canada

Clubroot Biology, & Scouting Protocols
Michael Harding – Research Scientist, Plant Pathology Alberta Agriculture & Forestry

Finding Clubroot for the First Time: how growers can cope, action plans, realistic sanitation options and hindsight
Dan Orchard, – Agronomy Specialist, Canola Council of Canada
John Guelly – Canola Grower and Alberta Canola Director

Understanding Clubroot Pathotypes and When to Deploy Resistant Varieties
Stephen Strelkov – Professor and Clubroot Research Scientist,  University of Alberta

Perspectives from Municipalities
Jeff Fleisher –  Rocky View County
Aaron Van Beers – Leduc County

For more information, click here.

Source: Alberta Canola

 

Canola Breeder Dedicated To His Craft: Dr. Habibur Rahman Has Made Significant Contributions To The Industry

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Plant breeding wasn’t Dr. Habibur Rahman’s first interest. Indeed, Rahman initially thought he would get into the field of human or plant genetics.

But a chance conversation with a family friend convinced Rahman to enter an agricultural university after graduating from high school, and the rest, as they say, is history.

The eminent canola breeder first became interested in genetics when his high school biology teacher taught the class about the genetics behind human eye colour.

“I became very interested, learning about genes and chromosomes and cells. But when I finished high school, I thought I would study botany at university where I can get specialization in plant genetics,” he says. “But my brother’s friend suggested I attend an agriculture university that has a genetics department.”

Rahman attended Bangladesh Agricultural University, receiving his Bachelor of Science in Agriculture with Honours in 1980 and his Master of Science in Agriculture in Genetics and Plant Breeding in 1982. He completed his Ph.D. in Plant Breeding and Genetics at Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (now known as Copenhagen University) in 1988.

From January 1989 to September 2003, Rahman worked as a canola breeder/senior breeder with a Danish seed company, Danisco Seed. During this period, he developed (solely or jointly) 47 spring and winterBrassica napus canola, high-oleic and low-linolenic acid canola, and high erucic rapeseed cultivars for European and North American markets. At one time, one of his winter canola cultivars, Aviso, captured about one-third of the French market. This cultivar has been used as check for blackleg disease resistance by the French official authority.

In 2003, Rahman accepted a position to teach and lead the canola program at the University of Alberta (U of A). At the time he joined the university, clubroot emerged as a threat to canola production in Canada. He immediately began work on finding solutions, identifying clubroot-resistant Brassicagermplasm, introgressing resistance into Canadian B. napuscanola, mapping some of the resistance genes and, in collaboration with an industry partner, developing the first clubroot resistant canola cultivar carrying multiple clubroot resistance genes.

Over the past 15 years, Rahman has continued his mission to improve canola for Alberta and Canadian crop producers. He introgressed exotic genes/alleles from different exotic gene pools, such as European winter canola, Chinese semi-winter type and rutabaga, and allied species, such as B. oleraceaand B. rapa, into Canadian canola, and developed a canola cultivar by the use of genetically diverse materials. And he contributed to the knowledge of the value of different gene pools for increased seed yield in hybrid canola cultivars.

In addition, Rahman has:

  • Introgressed earliness of flowering from the C genome of the late-flowering species oleracea(Chinese kale) into B. napuscanola and mapped the flowering time genes and established their association with seed yield for use in breeding.
  • Identified the B genome chromosomes of carinatathat carry resistance to blackleg disease for the introgression into B. napuscanola.
  • Developed different fatty acid mutant lines of oleracea, including low-linolenic acid (C18:3), and characterized the C18:3 mutations at sequence level for use in the breeding of B. napuscanola.
  • Mapped several agronomic and seed quality traits and identified molecular markers for use in marker-assisted breeding.
  • Developed more than 120,000 SSR markers from the BrassicaA genome for use in breeding.
  • Developed (solely) four additional canola cultivars for commercialization in Canada.

Rahman says the continued evolution of plant breeding has been a boon to the industry. When he entered the plant breeding field, he said only the most traditional plant breeding techniques were in place.

“But then in the early 1980s, doubled haploid breeding came about, and it was very fascinating and interesting,” he notes. “Then in the late 1980s/early 1990s a new tool came – the use of molecular markers in plant breeding. This was a big change, and we’re increasingly using molecular markers today in plant breeding.”

Other changes Rahman has seen during his career are the development and use of transgenics traits, and the development of hybrid canola cultivars.

As science continues to grow by leaps and bounds, Rahman says we should see more integration of molecular markers and genomics tools in breeding of crop cultivars.

“We’ve had molecular markers for many years now, but it has not been integrated into most breeding programs that much,” he says. “I expect the use of marker technology to increase as costs decrease.”

When he’s not in the lab at the U of A, Rahman teaches an undergraduate plant breeding course, Genetic Improvement of Crop Plants, and the graduate course Plant Breeding. He has also been teaching the graduate course Seminar in Plant Science. Over the past five years, he’s graduated nine M.Sc. students and over the course of his 15 years at U of A, 13 M.Sc. and two Ph.D. students. He currently supervises four M.Sc. students and supervises or co-supervises four Ph.D. students. He also supervises two postdoctoral fellows, two research associates and three technicians.

Since joining the U of A, Rahman has published 45 papers in refereed journals and eight papers in conference proceedings (over his lifetime 65 papers in refereed journals, 14 in conference proceedings and one book chapter). He has received several research grants as principal investigator or co-principal investigator for conducting breeding research on canola in the areas of clubroot and blackleg disease resistance, genetic diversity and heterosis, earliness of flowering and maturity without yield penalty, clubroot and blackleg disease resistance, yellow seed colour and seed meal quality, fatty acid profile of oil and increasing seed oil content.

There’s no doubt Rahman possesses strong academic and commercial plant breeding expertise, and the combination of these two makes him a very unique plant breeder. He has made huge contributions to plant breeding research, to training of the next generation of plant breeders, and has made important contributions to the practical application of research for the development of commercial cultivars.

Despite a highly-successful plant breeding career, Rahman isn’t slowing down. He’s got plans and dreams.

“I hope to have more money and more time to do more research to integrate molecular tools in breeding,” he says. “And I’d like to see all students include a molecular component in their research and integrate this with breeding.

“I would also like to see more integration of molecular tools and research, including the finding of beneficial genes and alleles in Brassicavegetables and allied species, in the breeding of canola cultivars; lots of important genes and alleles can be found in Brassica– beyond the boundary of B. napuscanola. If I had a few million dollars, I’d put up a centre for this.”

Clubroot Identified in Rocky View County Southeast of Calgary

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Clubroot has been identified in canola southeast of Calgary. Although clubroot has been found in various counties in Alberta since 2003, this is the first year the disease has been confirmed in Rocky View County.

This fall, southern Alberta canola growers should be especially diligent in scouting their canola fields for clubroot and should consider deploying resistant varieties in future canola production cycles.

Identifying clubroot as early as possible and keeping the pathogen’s spores from spreading are important steps in long-term clubroot management. With early detection, growers can take steps to contain and minimize spore loads and protect their fields. ANY method of soil movement can move the clubroot pathogen’s spores, such as tillage, dirt/dust on equipment and straw, wind or water erosion, and even animals.

Under high disease pressure, above-ground symptoms of clubroot can include stunted growth, wilting and premature ripening. These symptoms should not be mistaken for drought stress, which was common throughout southern Alberta this year. Start looking for the disease around field entrances and in areas with higher moisture or where soil movement may have occurred in a field’s history. Proper diagnosis should always include digging up plants to check for gall formation on roots. This time of year, many galls will likely have matured and decomposed into a peat-moss-like (or sawdust-like) substance around roots. If growers or agronomists find galls or a substance that looks like it might have been galls, samples can be sent to a lab for proper diagnosis. Find the labs list at clubroot.ca.

Source: Canola Watch

Tips for Drying Tough and Damp Canola

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The ideal goal for safe long-term storage is to have canola rest in the bin at 8% moisture and less than 15°C.

No matter how good the harvest weather or how dry the harvested crop, all canola should be conditioned after it goes into the bin.

Turn on the fans to cool that hot canola.

For tough and damp canola, the spoilage risk is much higher. Canola is considered “tough” at moisture levels between 10% and 12.5%. “Damp” is anything above that. With tough canola, aeration with adequate airflow can be enough to dry it to safe storage levels as long as air has capacity to dry: warm with low relatively humidity (RH). At RH values above 70%, the equilibrium moisture content will be above 8% to 9%, meaning sufficient drying for safe long term storage is difficult to achieve. Drying canola with aeration alone also requires sufficient air flow* and time to move the drying front to the top of the grain mass. Damp canola will require heated air drying and rigorous management to condition it for safe storage.

HEATED AIR DRYING:

Dry canola as soon as possible. While waiting, aerate continuously if possible and move damp canola back and forth between storage facilities to prevent spoilage. The combination of aeration and movement is ideal.

Have the right equipment. Continuous flow or re-circulating batch drying systems are preferable. They reduce the potential for seed damage from heating and allow for slightly higher drying temperatures. For very damp canola, growers may prefer to run the grain through twice at a lower temperature to prevent seed damage and reduce the risk of fires. Also, if the dryer has screens, make sure the screen size is small enough to hold canola. Another option is to add heat to a bin aeration system. Talk to your bin and fan supplier for details.

Watch drying temperatures. Check the maximum safe drying temperature for your system, then reduce it by 11°C when working with damp canola as opposed to tough. As moisture content increases, it gets much easier to “cook” your canola in a heated air drying system.

Over dry canola slightly when using heated air. As grain cools when moved into storage, moisture content tends to rebound slightly. Over drying compensates for this. A general rule is to over dry by 0.1% for every point the grain is dried. For example, if canola is at 14% moisture and your target is 9%, over dry by 0.5 percentage points to 8.5%.

When returning warm, dried canola back to the bin, turn on the fans to cool it for safe storage. This could also allow for a bit more drying as drying can occur when cold air is introduced to a warm mass of grain.

NATURAL AIR DRYING:

Natural air drying (NAD) using aeration fans with adequate airflow can work as long as air has capacity to dry. NAD for tough or damp canola is not usually effective under late fall conditions when canola and outside air are both cold. In these conditions, reaching dry equilibrium moisture levels often takes too long to avoid spoilage in many cases.

A heater added to an aeration fan.

Adding heat to an aeration system. The general recommendation for this method is to increase air temperature to no more than 15-20°C. PAMI storage researcher Joy Agnew notes: “Hotter is NOT always better when using natural air drying with heat. You must match heat addition with your fan capacity. The more cubic feet per minute the fan blows, the more heat you can add. With typical NAD fans, a temperature increase of 10-20°C is max.” Also ensure fan airflow rate is sufficient for moisture removal — 0.5 cfm/bu or higher. Ensure the air is heated adequately. There’s no point in heating air if the amount of temperature increase won’t accomplish drying.

Temperature of the grain itself plays a role in the efficiency of NAD and NAD with supplemental heat. If the grain is already cool (less than 5°C), NAD and NAD with supplemental heat will initially add moisture to the grain; it will take some time before drying starts, but the bulk will warm up eventually and drying will be accomplished. If the grain is still warm (close to the temperature of the air you are introducing into the bin), then NAD plus supplemental heat can work very well. Increasing the temperature of the incoming air basically reduces the relative humidity (RH) of the incoming air (or increases the capacity of air to hold moisture) which will increase its efficiency of drying the grain. For every 10°C increase in air temperature, the RH is cut in half.

Can your fan move enough air? When conditioning tough or damp canola, make sure your aeration fan has the horsepower to work effectively. Insufficient air flow can result in a high moisture zone near the top of the bin that can initiate spoilage.

If the fan can’t move enough air, take out some grain. The greater the depth of canola in the bin, the more fan capacity you will need to move air through it effectively. Large diameter bins that provide uniform air flow through a perforated floor may have an advantage when handling damp grain. If you suspect the air flow is insufficient, remove some canola to reduce the depth. This offers two other benefits: It disrupts any high moisture areas that are developing. And it can flatten the cone, making the depth of grain more consistent throughout the bin.

Ventilate the bin. Proper ventilation at the top of the bin to allow for escape of the warm moist air is very important, especially for large bins and especially when adding supplemental heat since the moisture removal rate is so much higher when heat is added. Inadequate ventilation in the headspace will result in condensation on the top layers of grain.

What about blending dry and damp canola? If considering blending in an attempt to bring damp canola down to tough, be very careful. It is possible you could just be putting your dry canola at risk, as the transfer of moisture from seed to seed is a slow process.

Monitor regularly. This is good advice for all canola. Be extra careful with canola that goes into the bin warm and tough this week.

*PAMI ran a trial in wheat comparing two bins using 0.1 cfm/bu, two bins using 0.5 cfm/bu and two bins using 1 cfm/bu. All bins started with the same temperature and moisture content (17%). Bins with 0.5 and 1 cfm/bu air flow ended up between 14% and 15% moisture, but the bin with 0.1 cfm/bu lost very little moisture and ended up around 16.5%.

Source: Canola Watch

Top 10 Things To Look For During Harvest Down Days

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Weather delays? Canola not ready to swath? Waiting for the next crops to be ready to combine? Take advantage of harvest down days to check canola fields for the following:

1. Clubroot. Don’t wait for obvious dead patches. Check random plants in high risk areas to see if they have clubs. If they do have clubs, destroy as many as you can. It may seem a daunting task and you won’t find them all with a random search, but the more you destroy now, the fewer spores will remain. Consider this: Seed growers spend weeks roguing crops for weeds and off-types. Ridding a field of clubroot deserves the same level of attention. Read more scouting tips. Send samples for DNA analysis. Top 10 observations from the International Clubroot Workshop.

2. Blackleg. Fields that started the season with moist soil conditions and fields that had hail early in the season could be at higher risk for yield-damaging blackleg. Fields in a tight canola rotation are also at higher risk. Clip stems to check for blackleg severity. Do 50 random stems (not just clearly damaged stems) to get a true picture of incidence (% of plants infected) and severity (average blackleg rating) for the field. If average severity is moving beyond 1.5 toward 2 or more, this is a clear sign that the blackleg resistance in the variety is no longer appropriate for this particular field. The blackleg pathogen population has shifted and R-gene rotation will be required the next time canola is grown on that field – unless the plan is to take a three-year break from canola. When making field scouting notes, include the variety name. Read more. See the article on race ID tests for blackleg.

3. Sclerotinia stem rot. Dry conditions will mean lower levels of sclerotinia across most regions this year, but what about your fields? Checking sclerotinia levels now will help assess fungicide application decisions. Read more. Take our very short survey on sclerotinia stem rot action and DNA petal tests.

4. Other diseases like grey stem or verticillium. Blackleg can sometimes be confused with root/foot rot or grey stem and sometimes verticillium. How to ID various diseases that can be found in canola this time of year. Read an article specific to identifying verticillium.

5. Plant density assessment. Plant counts can drop 10-15% through the season. If more severe than that, check scouting notes and consider the most likely reasons – Insects? Weather? Disease? Overcrowding? – and whether there’s a profit-improving way to prevent this. Seed choice may be part of the solution. If counts increase, which is also possible, take a close look at all plants in the harvest count to see how many are actually contributing to yield. Small spindly plants that emerged well after all the others may not have that many pods, and should not be included in the count. Another angle is to see how plant density may be affecting days to maturity. Big plants due to low density mean more branches and longer maturity. Read more.

6. Insects. You might still find bertha armyworm, lygus, flea beetles, grasshoppers and even cutworms at work this late in the season. But with harvest so close, pre-harvest intervals will be a concern if populations are near spray thresholds.

7. Insect damage. Seeing clear evidence of insect chewing on pods, in pods, on leaves and stems? If damage is enough to cause noticeable in yield loss, it may inspire a closer look next year.

8. How are varieties performing? Seed decisions for next year are already being made. Aside from yield (which is yet to be determined), how did this year’s varieties work out in terms of disease resistance, height, lodging? Is the pod shatter trait, if you went that way, also showing benefits for pod integrity after late-season hail and frost? Tool to help with seed decisions.

9. Review your notes on the season. Problems from earlier in the season can be tricky to diagnose this late, which is why keeping notes on observations all season long is so helpful. Review the notes from each field and add missing details now (while it might be fresh) rather than waiting until winter. Read more.

10. Weeds. Are those patches herbicide resistant and to what? Or are they just escapes?
—Herbicide resistant weeds tend to be in patches with only one weed species present. Other weeds were controlled while this particular species-specific patch was not. Herbicide-resistant weeds also tend to be in patches of irregular shape, starting off as one weed and going out from there as seeds shell out or the combine spreads them around. In the case of glyphosate-resistant kochia, plants are often in long lines as the resistant parent tumbled along dropping seeds. Wild oats will be in patches that spread out from the original resistant plants.
—Escapes tend to be multiple weed species. Weeds under the canopy may have missed herbicide contact, and these will usually be more than one species. Patches of escapes also tend to be in clear shapes, perhaps in arcs in headlands where the sprayer missed on a turn. Read more.
If weed patches could cause problems for straight combining, pre-harvest herbicide may be required to improve harvest logistics.

Source: Canola Watch